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The fourth edition of the Swimming Science Research Review was released November 15th. Below is the content of this edition. 

Make sure you pick your copy up today to enhance your swimming and evidence-based coaching.  

Does Magnesium Reduce Cramping? | NUTRITION.. 4

Can Spine Manipulation Reduce Low Back Pain? | REHABILITATION.. 5
Effects of Smoking on Knee Tissue | REHABILITATION.. 6
Effects of Vitamin C and E on Training Adaptation  | NUTRITION.. 7
Effects of Rehab Training on Pain Threshold  | REHABILITATION.. 9
Effect of Fatigue on Kinetics  | BIOMECHANICS. 11
Ye Shiwen’s Speedy Swim: Not an Anomaly!  | SWIM STATISTICS. 13
Better Ways to Assess Lower Back Movement  | REHABILITATION.. 14
Cost of treating Lower Back Pain  | REHABILITATION.. 15
Spinal Manipulation Technique Comparison  | REHABILITATION.. 16
ATP Supplement Effects on Muscle Torque/Fatigue  | NUTRITION.. 17
Effects of Different Training Volumes on Strength and Power | STRENGTH TRAINING.. 19
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Treatment and Imaging  | REHABILITATION.. 21
Muscle Fatigue Model for Predicting Muscle Endurance Times  | PHYSIOLOGY. 23
Genetic Variation in Human Muscle Strength  |  GENETICS. 24
Rolling Rhythms in Freestyle- 6 Beat Kick  | SWIM TECHNIQUE. 26
Comparing Effects of Stretching on Sprinting  | DRYLAND.. 28
Knee Stress at Varying Squat Loads/Depths  | DRYLAND
Single Leg Squat Performance Affected by Muscle Activation/ROM | DRYLAND


Garrison SR, Allan GM, Sekhon RK, Musini VM, Khan KM. Magnesium for skeletal muscle cramps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;9:CD009402.

Muscle cramps are common in a wide range of settings, most commonly associated with athletics. Magnesium is one supplement being marketed as a potential treatment, as it is cellular metabolism is commonly associated (anecdotally) as a cause of cramps. This study reviewed the literature on the effectiveness of magnesium to prevent muscle cramps.

What was done

Four studies in older adults and three studies in pregnant women (no studies in athletes) were reviewed.

Cramps in older adults appear unlikely to benefit from magnesium supplement. One study in pregnant women found benefit from supplementation, but the other two studies found no benefit, resulting in inconclusive evidence on the subject.

“It is unlikely that magnesium supplementation provides clinically meaningful cramp prophylaxis to older adults experiencing skeletal muscle cramps (Garrison 2012)”. However, inconclusive evidence in pregnant women and lack of research during exercise suggest much more research is necessary on the subject.

Practical Implication

It seems magnesium does not improve cramping in older adults, unfortunately this is difficult to associate with exercise. However, from this reviewer’s knowledge, it seems cramping is multi-factorial with the largest contribution from the neural or muscle physiology, opposed to the metabolic system.

Dr. John Mullen, DPT, CSCS world-renowned physical therapist and strength coach.
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