Take Home Points on Speed of Breathing Predicts 100-m Performance
Everyone is trying to predict athletic performance in youth athletes. Not unlike other website previously.
Breathing is a unique process in swimming due to it’s hypoxic nature. Swimming practice improves pulmonary function and swimmers show higher lung volumes and pulmonary diffusion capacity compared with both nonathletic and athletic peers from other sports. This has led many to consider inspiratory muscle training. However, the forced inspiratory volume is another important factor as the faster a swimmer can breathe in air, the more air they can hold per breath and limit their breathing which often increases drag and prevents biomechanics. However, few studies have looked the relationship of respiratory capacity and sprint swimming performance.
Seventeen national competitive swimmers (M=8, F=9; ~16.9 years) with personal records in the 100 m at 56.1 seconds for male and 65.2 seconds for female. All swimmers have been swimming 6 days per week for the past 3 years.
After a standard warm-up, each swimmer performed a 100-m all-out trial. Swimmers also had their physiological parameters of lung function measured using a spirometer. The subjects performed maximal inspiration followed by enforced exhalation three times.
Anthropometric data was also measured for each swimmer. On top of this, squat jump and countermovement jump were assessed.
The male swimmers were older, taller, and heavier, with less adipose tissue than the females. Also, the males were faster in the 100-m time trial, had a higher height in squat jump and countermovement jump and nearly all pulmonary functions, except forced expiratory volume in the first second (FIV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced inspiratory volume (FIV).
FIV1 was negatively correlated with 100 m time trial in men and FIV1 and FVC were negatively correlated with time trial in female swimmers.
Anthropometrics and conditional variables did not show a significant correlation in the swimmers.
This is the first study to demonstrate the influence of FIV1 in 100 m performance. FIV1 likely aids performance by allowing the swimmer to inhale air quicker and increase the amount of air they can inhale in a limited time. Swimmers with high FIV1 may need less respiratory frequency, produce less inspiratory muscle fatigue, increasing active limbs blood flow and reducing fatigue in these limbs, and consequently may improve performance.
It seems inspiratory muscle training would improve swimming velocity, which has been suggested in the recent literature.
Respiratory capacity should be assessed by swim teams, if looking for predicting performance. Also, coaches must consider using inspriatory muscle training.
- Noriega-Sánchez SA, Legaz-Arrese A, Suarez-Arrones L, Santalla A, Floría P, Munguía-Izquierdo D. FORCED INSPIRATORY VOLUME IN THE FIRST SECOND AS PREDICTOR OF FRONT CRAWLPERFORMANCE IN YOUNG SPRINT SWIMMERS. J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Jul 21. [Epub ahead of print]
By Dr. G. John Mullen received his Doctorate in Physical Therapy from the University of Southern California and a Bachelor of Science of Health from Purdue University where he swam collegiately. He is the owner of COR, Strength Coach Consultant, Creator of the Swimmer's Shoulder System, and chief editor of the Swimming Science Research Review.