Do Growth Spurts Increase Injury Risk?

Take Home Points on Do Growth Spurts Increase Injury Risk?
  1. It seems the injury rate increases during growth spurts, but research is very limited. 
Growing pains are common in children, yet the cause and treatment of growing pains are not well known. Some hypothesize growing pains occur from muscles pulling on bones creating discomfort. Others believe increase in bone size simply increases discomfort from an increase in mechanical pressure. 

Growing pains are one type of "injury" during growth spurts. Specific adolescent injuries also exists, which I commonly see for Physical Therapy

Adolescent Injuries

  1. Osgood-Schlatter's Disease: is a painful swelling of the bump on the upper part of the shinbone, just below the knee. This bump is called the anterior tibial tubercle. It is believed to occur in active children who's patella tendon pulls on the tibial tubercle. 
  2. Sever's Disease: inflammation of the growth plate in the heel of growing children, typically adolescents. The condition presents as pain in the heel and is caused by repetitive stress to the heel and is thus particularly common in active children. It usually resolves once the bone has completed growth or activity is lessened.
  3. These are just a few common musculoskeletal injuries effecting children. Many other injuries can occur during growth spurts and parents for decades believe children have a higher injury risk during a growth spurt. Combine this injury risk with chronic poor posture from computers/electronics and early sports specialization and you've got a high injury risk for child...scary!

Growth Spurts and Injuries

Now, before we jump to conclusions about the injury incidence and growth spurts, we should consult
the limited literature:

Yukutake (2014) had 654 baseball players aged 6-12 years, all male, complete an original questionnaire that included items assessing demographic data, developmental factors (increase in height and increase in weight over the preceding 12 months), and baseball related factors. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for elbow pain during the 12 months prior to the study.

The data collected for 392 players without omissions or blank answers were submitted to statistical analysis. The results found that 19.1% of Little League baseball players had experienced elbow pain in the 12 months leading up to the study. The analysis revealed that height and increase in height were risk factors that increased the risk of elbow pain after adjustment for demographic data, developmental data, and baseball related factors.

Wild (2012) looked at ACL injury rates in adolescent boys and girls, noting girls have a higher ACL injury rate from:
  1. The effects of changes in estrogen levels on the metabolic and mechanical properties of the ACL
  2. Changes in musculoskeletal structure and function that occur during puberty, including changes in knee laxity, and lower limb flexibility and strength. 
  3. How these hormonal and musculoskeletal changes impact upon the landing technique displayed by pubescent girls.With limited research, limited conclusions are possible. 
However, the risk of injury increases during periods of growth. Unfortunately, recommendations now are purely theoretical. Some would suggest decreasing activity during maturation, but these are the peak years of motor learning. Instead, decreasing training volume and varying activities may be the best solution. This website has brought up the idea of a "swim stroke count", similar to a pitch for baseball. However, swim stroke counts may not be effective nor practical as many other factors influence musculosketetal stress on maturing bodies. Looks like we need more research on maturing athletic children!

References:
  1. Yukutake T, Nagai K, Yamada M, Aoyama T. Risk factors for elbow pain in Little League baseball players: a cross-sectional study focusing on anthropometric characteristics. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2014 Apr 9.
  2. Wild CY, Steele JR, Munro BJ. Why do girls sustain more anterior cruciate ligament injuries than boys?: a review of the changes in estrogen and musculoskeletal structure and function during puberty. Sports Med. 2012 Sep 1;42(9):733-49. doi: 10.2165/11632800-000000000-00000. Review.
By Dr. G. John Mullen received his Doctorate in Physical Therapy from the University of Southern California and a Bachelor of Science of Health from Purdue University where he swam collegiately. He is the owner of COR, Strength Coach Consultant, Creator of the Swimmer's Shoulder System, and chief editor of the Swimming Science Research Review.

Life-Long Swimming Movement

The newest edition of the Swimming Science Research Review was released today. The theme of this edition is physiology, make sure to order your copy to stay current with the latest research on dry-land. Below are the tables of contents of this edition. 

September Swimming Science Research Review Tables of Contents

  1. Apheresis PRP has Minimal Enhancements  | PRP INJECTIONS
  2. Scapular Mobility is Altered in Impingement  | SHOULDER IMPINGEMENT
  3. Consider Function when Diagnosis FAI  | HIP FAI
  4. Review of Patellofemoral Knee Pain  | PATELLOFEMORAL KNEE PAIN
  5. Push-up Plus Minimizes Pectoralis Major Activity  | REHABILITATION
  6. Clinical Tests Cannot Diagnose Sciatica  | SCIATICA
  7. Manipulation and Sham Manipulation Improve Scapular Mobility  | MANIPULATION
  8. Swimming is a Possible Exercise During Pregnancy  | PREGNANCY
  9. Corticosteroids Improve Shoulder Pain Better than NSAIDs  | THERAPEUTIC DRUGS
  10. The Slump Test Identifies those with Mechanosensitivity  | SCIATICA
  11. Aerobic Training Increases Pain Tolerance  | PAIN
  12. Elite Swimmers have Altered Pectoralis Minor Length  | MOBILITY
  13. Sympatomatic Axillopectoral Muscles  | REHABILITATION
  14. Core Strength Testing  | LOW BACK PAIN
  15. Shoulder Dryland Training Decreases Imbalances  | SHOULDER STRENGTHENING
  16. Physical Therapy and Dry Needling have Similar Results in Myofascial Pain  | REHABILITATION
  17. Pain Impairs Performance  | PAIN
  18. Core Muscle Contraction Rate Varies with Position  | LOW BACK PAIN
  19. Screening Helps Predict Injuries   | INJURY SCREENING
  20. Rotational Differences in Overhead Athletes  | PREVENTION
  21. Alarming Injury Rates in Collegiate Swimmers  | REHABILITATION
  22. Latent Myofascial Trigger Points Inhibit Strength  | PREVENTION
  23. Shoulder Adaptations to Pitching  | PREVENTION
  24. Graston Technique Improves Range of Motion  | REHABILITATION
  25. Bench Press Shoulder Pain Case Study  | PREVENTION

Foreword

Injuries occur in every sport. This incidence creates acceptance in coaching, as many turn
a blind eye to aches and pains. As we’re learning, this practice is hazardous, as pain and even latent trigger points (muscle knots) impair strength and biomechanics. In swimming, biomechanics and reducing drag directly correlates with swimming success. If athletes are having pain, from either an injury, pre-injury, or training, their performance and skill will obviously suffer. As motor learning research unveils, preventing soreness, monitoring injuries, and individualizing rest/recovery requires deep consideration. Remember, few swimmers, even elite swimmers, will make a career out of swimming. With this in mind, push you swimmers, safely, and intelligently for improvement with their acute and long-term health and performance in mind. If you coach high school-aged kids, take pride in having a high percentage of them swimming at Masters meets in their life, coaching high-school, or having their children swim. This may sound silly, but building life-long ambassadors of the sport will do more for the swimming community, than building a team of disgruntled, injured, and regretful Olympic Trial qualifiers in the sport.

Re-evaluate your team, educate your parents and athletic department and join the life-long swimming movement today!

The influx of online information makes it difficult to stay up-to-date with informative, accurate research studies. The Swimming Science Research Review brings you a comprehensive research articles on swimming, biomechanics, physiology, psychology, and much more!
This monthly publication keeps busy coaches and swimming enthusiast on top of swimming research to help their programs excel, despite being extremely busy.

$10/month
 

Breast Size and Swimming

Take Home Points on Breast Size and Swimming:
  1. Swimming suits are ineffective in reducing breast displacement in freestyle and breaststroke.
Few in the swimming community are comfortable discussing today's topic: influence of trunk and breast during swimming. Considering the biomechanical influence of these body parts, it is an obvious research need. Also, if you talk or have worked with female swimmers, you'd likely agree the trunk and breast can influence swimming biomechanics and velocity. However, having research on the subject and understanding the effects of varying size breast with varying support helps coaches and swimmers make individual adjustments for each swimmer and their anthropomorphics.

There has been research on breast displacement in different bras during varying land activities (walking, running, etc.). This research found an obvious assumption: increased breast support caused decreases in breast displacement. Unlike most other sports, swimming is unique as it is in the horizontal plane, performed in water, both influencing breast displacement.

The breast likely influence body rotation during freestyle and backstroke. Previous work by Payton (1999) suggest rotation is approximately (66°) when taking a breath  than when breath holding (57°) whilst swimming at 1.8 m/s.

During short axis strokes (breaststroke and butterfly), results in breast displacement in the sagittal plane. Breaststroke causes approximately 63 degrees of trunk extension, causing resistance and slowing the swimmer (Colman 1998).


Understanding breast displacement is also important for non-elite swimmers, as some women experience pain during land exercise.

Mills (2014) had six large-breasted females (34 F, 34 F, 30 G, 34 G, 36FF and 34HH; age: 29; mass: 78.9 kg;  height:1.66 m) perform two swimming trials (one freestyle and one breaststroke). Each swimmer was recorded while swimming in the flume with multiple underwater markers on anatomical landmarks. Participants’ bra size was established by a trained bra fitter and fitted in the sports bra used for testing (using the fit criteria as set out by White and Scurr, 2012). The testing consisted of front crawl swimming at 1.08 m/s and breaststroke swimming at 0.94 m/s (water temperature: 30.5°C).

Breast Displacement During Freestyle

Mediolateral breast displacement (side to side), has a temporal pattern of medial, then lateral movement. These patterns were consistent, no matter the breast support condition. Breast displacement in the anterioposterior (forward and backward) varied with different support conditions. 

Overall, the greatest displacement occured mediolaterally in the swimsuit condition (7.8 cm), while the least displacement occurred in the sports bra condition (3.3 cm). Overall, the sports bra condition decreased breast movement, but not significantly. 

There was greater trunk roll in the sports bra condition, while the swimsuit had the lowest trunk rotation (43.1 vs. 39.3). However, different strategies were obtained with varying support for the participants. There was a strong negative relationship between trunk roll and anteriorposterior breast displacement and superiorinferior breast displacement. Overall, more trunk roll results in less breast displacement in freestyle. 

Breast Displacement During Breaststroke

Trunk extension exhibited a single peak of 55-60% of the stroke cycle. Superiorinferior displacement peaks inferiorly at 70% through the stroke in the bare-breasted condition, but not in the swimsuit and sports bra condition. 

Like freestyle, the bare-breasted condition had the greatest displacement in the superioinferior direction (3.7 cm) and the least in the mediolateral direction while wearing the sports bra (1.4 cm). This difference was significant. 

The least amount of trunk extension occurred in the swimsuit condition, but there were no significant differences between conditions. 

Breast Displacement Considerations for Swimming

This study notes minimal difference between the swimsuit and bare-breasted condition, suggesting current swimwear minimally supports women with larger breasts. Overall, the displacement of the breast was approximately half the displacement of land based sports. Unlike land sports, breast size did not impair body roll. However, more water becomes trapped in the the the swimsuit condition opposed to the sports bra condition. Overall, swim suit manufactures should consider swimwear with more breast support for maximizing performance. 

"The relationship between trunk roll and breast displacement was an interesting and unexpected finding as it was anticipated that women who exhibit greater trunk roll would induce significantly greater mediolateral breast displacement. There may be several reasons for this; first, the flow velocity of the water in the flume may not be uniform with changes in water depth. This may mean that the flow velocity is greater nearer the surface and decreases with depth, therefore affecting the drag on the swimmer. With increased trunk roll, the breast may be closer to the water’s surface and exposed to higher flow velocities resulting in a “pinning” effect on the breast, pushing it closer to the trunk, decreasing anterioposterior breast displacement and consequently minimising superioinferior displacement. Similarly, the breast being closer to the surface of the water may also cause an increase in wave drag (Vennell, Pease, & Wilson, 2006). An increase in wave drag may also have a similar “pinning” effect to that associated with an increase in flow velocity. Finally, flume construction may mean that the wave energy cannot be dissipated and is rebounded back off the side of the flume wall towards the swimmer. An increase in trunk roll may expose more of the trunk and breast to this rebound wave, again acting to “push” or “pin” the breast towards the trunk minimising breast anterioposterior and superioinferior displacement. It would be beneficial for a future study to examine any differences in breast motion during swimming both in the flume and in pool environments and also to manipulate trunk roll from low to high to determine its effect on breast displacement using an intra-participant design (Mills 2014".

Conclusions on Breast Displacement in Swimming

Greater breast displacement occurred in freestyle compared to breaststroke. The swimsuit was ineffective for reducing breast displacement. More research on elite swimmers and more advanced swimwear (ie high tech suits) will help suit manufactures optimize swim suits for women with varying breast size. Overall, breast size did not impair swimming trunk motion. 

References:

  1. Mills C, Lomax M, Ayres B, Scurr J. The movement of the trunk and breast during front crawl and breaststroke swimming. J Sports Sci. 2014 Sep 5:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]
  2. Payton CJ, Bartlett RM, Baltzopoulos V, Coombs R. Upper extremity kinematics and body roll during preferred-side breathing and breath-holding front crawl swimming. J Sports Sci. 1999 Sep;17(9):689-96.
  3. Vennell R, Pease D, Wilson B. Wave drag on human swimmers. J Biomech. 2006;39(4):664-71.
By Dr. G. John Mullen received his Doctorate in Physical Therapy from the University of Southern California and a Bachelor of Science of Health from Purdue University where he swam collegiately. He is the owner of COR, Strength Coach Consultant, Creator of the Swimmer's Shoulder System, and chief editor of the Swimming Science Research Review.

Soft Tissue Therapy Improves Immune Function

Take Home Points on Soft Therapy Work Improves Immune Function

  1. Soft tissue therapy to the neck improves CD count, which may reduce illnesses.
High stress,  whether physical, mental, or social, drains the body and increases risk of illness. Every swimmer has become sick during a training trip (high physical stress) or even during taper (high emotional and mental stress). As a collegiate swimmer, a became very ill my Junior year, not being able to compete at the collegiate conference meet, practically wasting an entire year of training!

Now, you'll see many articles on foods, supplements, nutrients and other things which can prevent illness and these items do play a role, but I'm sure you haven't heard much about soft tissue work! Sure, having a massage feels good, but can it reduce illness? How about self massages also known as self myofascial releases (SMR)? 

Despite the common use of myofascial techniques, not much is clinically known about these methods. Despite the lack of knowledge, some in this field of research feel myofascial “therapy can have the following effects: enhanced circulation of antibodies in the fundamental substance; improved blood supply to areas of restriction through the release of histamine; correct orientation of fibroblasts; increased blood supply to the nervous tissue; and greater flow of metabolites from and to the tissue, thereby accelerating the wound-healing process (Fernández-Pérez 2012)”.

For investigating the potential health benefits, Fernández-Pérez (2012) took blood from thirty-nine healthy men without any pathological condition before and after a fifteen minute session of myofascial techniques to the suboccipital and deep anterior cervical fascia. A control group consisted of simply not receiving any treatment. Before the study, immunological markers did not differ between groups. After the soft tissue work, the experimental group had a significant different cluster of differentiation (CD) count after the treatment, specifically with an increase in CD19 (a B-lymphocyte antigen).


Clearly, this is a preliminary study and simply assuming this increased CD count will reduce illness is not appropriate. Also, assuming the actual soft tissue manipulation was the reason for the higher CD count isn't known, as the researchers suggest simply “human touch” may trigger this immunological response. However, this coincides with other findings which suggest myofascial techniques play larger role than muscle manipulation. Specifically, older studies have found alterations in the sympathetic nervous system (changes in blood pressure and heart rate after myofascial techniques). Also, CD19 plays a role in B lymphocyte function and may initiate improvement in connective tissue, minimally important for immune function, but maybe helpful for injuries and microinjuries.

Conclusion on Soft Tissue Therapy and Immune Function


This suggests myofascial techniques to the cervical muscles may modulate sympathetic and immunological function. However, future studies must assess this result in more diverse populations, specifically those with preexisting injuries. Also, further research into self myofascial releases are mandatory, as we are still not sure if SMR has similar results as manual therapy performed by another person. As a Physical Therapist at COR, I think SMR is beneficial, but doesn't provide as good of results (there are a lot of theories for this!).

Want to learn more about mobility, self myofascial releases, and dynamic mobility for swimmers? Check out Mobility for Swimmers!

Reference

  1. Fernández-Pérez AM, Peralta-Ramírez MI, Pilat A, Moreno-Lorenzo C, Villaverde-Gutiérrez C, Arroyo-Morales M. Can Myofascial Techniques Modify Immunological Parameters? J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Nov 23. [Epub ahead of print]

By Dr. G. John Mullen received his Doctorate in Physical Therapy from the University of Southern California and a Bachelor of Science of Health from Purdue University where he swam collegiately. He is the owner of COR, Strength Coach Consultant, Creator of the Swimmer's Shoulder System, and chief editor of the Swimming Science Research Review.

Early Diversification for Swimmers

Take Home Points for Early Diversification for Swimmers
  1. When to begin specialization is an individualized process.
  2. Some elite performers benefit from early specialization, but it may not be best for the majority.
  3. Weighing the risk of early specialization is mandatory for determining time for specialization.
Sports specialization is defined as intense, year-round training in a single sport with the exclusion of other sports. Sports specialization is occurring earlier than ever before. Previous surveys found parents were the main motivator to initiate a sport, where coaches were the main reason behind specialization. I discussed this topic in detail with much backlash on Swimming World, overall suggesting a two-month break rule. Once again, this is not a system for everyone, at every point in their career, instead a rough suggestion for youth athletes. Nonetheless, the idea of early sports specialization exist and become more pronounced with Michael Phelps succeeds with early specialization. However, sometimes considering trends in other sports questions the current state of our own sport. Other times, and admittedly most often, it bears minor help on the sport of swimming.

Jayanthia (2012) looked at sports specialization in tennis players. Rates of sports specialization appear to increase with age. A study of 519 US Tennis Association junior tennis players found that 70% began specializing at an average age of 10.4 years old. Specialization rate gradually increased after 14 years, with 95% of players having specialized by age 18 years. However, enjoyment and satisfaction ratings decreased in players older than 14 years old. 

Musicians have been believed to improve from early specialization. However, the rates of success with sporting specialization are unclear, despite frequent expert opinions. A few studies have actually suggested elite success inversely correlated with training volume at the age of 14.

Early diversification often leads to more success and is suggested to provide an: “athlete with valuable physical, cognitive, and psychosocial environments and promotes motivation (Jayanthia 2012).”

As it seems, the benefits of early specialization are uncertain, but the risks appear consistent: more burnout, less enjoyment, more injuries

Some degree of sports specialization is necessary for elite success, however it seems imperative to delay early intense specialization for long-term enjoyment, health, and success for the majority of athletes. 

Practical Implication

Early exposure is likely necessary for the creation of ultra-elite swimmers, yet early specialization increases the likelihood of early burnout and quitting. For this reason, it is essential to start children early in swimming, but encouraging them to participate in other sports and activities until their post-pubescent years.

Each child should have the opportunity for elite performance, unfortunately this situation is too often rushed. As Dr. Sokolovas notes, "females need about 9 to 10 years of year round training, while males need 10 to 11 years.” This results in many parents, coaches, swimmers, pushing their kid at the age of 4 to swim year round, peaking at 14 or 15. 

Why rush?


Sure there are unfortunate reasons, like swimming status, but this isn’t needed. Instead
of looking at the amount of time for elite swimming success as in years, many think about it in hours, but remember, there are a lot of ways to get hours in swimming (12 years of swimming, 20 hours a week, for 10 months a year equals 10,080 hours for example). Unfortunately, newer research is suggesting the time equation or 10,000 hour rule is over simplified. Instead, quality of training, physical capacities, and many other factors are involved as well as training hours.

Even Dr. Sokolovas says “year-round” training is training 48-50 weeks a year, I just argue this can be extended and potentially stretched out for longer athletic development. Perhaps swimmers should doubles 3 days in a row, then a day off for an entire season! Maybe this scenario would provide the recovery needed for long term success and enjoyment.

No matter what training frequency and break scheduled is considered, make sure it receives thorough investigation, as the plan a 10-year-old performs influences their enjoyment and health, not only for sport, but also exercise. If the swimming community is disrupting swimmer's long-term health by increasing the injury risk and enjoyment of exercise, then the current status quo requires reconsideration. Ask this, as well as:
  • Are swimmers getting faster are more swimmers getting faster earlier in their career? 
  • Are there more elite swimmers or just more fast swimmers? 
With data and research, these are simple questions, but difficult answers. Nonetheless, the should guide future plans for long-term success and emphasis on early diversification/specialization for swimmers.

Reference:

  1. Jayanthia, N, Pinkham, C, Dugas, L, Patrick, B, LaBella, C. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes Evidence-Based Recommendations. Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach October 25, 2012. 1941738112464626.
  2. Sokolovas G. Why Swimmers Need to Train Year Round
By Dr. G. John Mullen received his Doctorate in Physical Therapy from the University of Southern California and a Bachelor of Science of Health from Purdue University where he swam collegiately. He is the owner of COR, Strength Coach Consultant, Creator of the Swimmer's Shoulder System, and chief editor of the Swimming Science Research Review.

Dryland and Stroke Biomechanics

Take Home Points:

  1. Strength training may have a positive effect on swimming biomechanics.
  2. Individualized dryland programs are necessary, considering the effects of dryland on future biomechanics.
  3. More research on the effects of land strength and dryland are required.

This is an example chapter of Dryland for Swimmers. Order your copy to day for $59.99!
Biomechanics are the largest contributor for swimming success. A possible explanation for this might lie in the nature of swimming; forces being applied against a fluctuate element with the posture of the human body being the most important vector against propulsion. Swimming performance is thus determined by the athletes’ ability to produce forward motion while reducing water friction, or drag (Toussaint 1990; Pate 1984). The possible biomechanical effects (propulsive abilities and drag) from drylandmust also be considered. Unfortunately, many resistance training studies do not compare biomechanics, making the results of each study impossible to extrapolate the biomechanical results of training. 

Four studies observed improvements in stroke mechanics, specifically increased stroke length, (Toussaint 1990; Strass 1986), increased stroke rate (Girold 2006) and decreased stroke depth (Girold 2007) after strength training. None of the included studies investigated whether there was a possible training effect on active or passive drag.

Girold et al. (2006) found that improved swimming performance was positively associated with an increased stroke rate of the last 50m of a 100m freestyle time trial after 3 weeks of in-water resistance training (tethered to an elastic tube). Swimming velocity is the product of stroke rate and stroke length, (Craig 1985) and both factors should be optimized for maximal performance. Although stroke rate has been associated with maximal swimming velocity, (Wakayoshi 1995) stroke length is likely more important (Wakayoshi 1993).

For instance Craig and colleagues (1985) observed that stroke length was the factor that differentiated finalists from non-finalists during the US Olympic trials in 1984, and another study suggested that increased maximal velocity was an effect of increased stroke length (Wakayoshi 1993).

Girold et al. (2006) found decreased stroke depth after both combined resisted- and assisted-sprint swim training (tethered to an elastic tube pulling against or towards swimming direction), and dryland strength training. The researchers found increased stroke rate both in the combined resisted- and assisted-sprint group and in the control group, but not in the strength training group. Although the findings were not fully consistent, the authors concluded that the decreased stroke depth was a consequence of maintained stroke length when stroke rate was increased. However, if body rotation remains stable, decreased stroke depth may reduce the biomechanical momentum of the propulsive muscles, and thus decrease the potential for propulsion.

In the study from Toussaint and Vervoorn, (1990) they observed increased stroke lengths at equal maximal swimming velocities after resistance training on the MAD system. The observed change was suggested to come from increased maximal swimming power, although maximal swimming velocity was unchanged. Similar observations were also made after dryland maximal strength training in the study from Strass, (1986) but not in the studies from Aspenes et al., (2009) Trappe and Pearson, (1994) Tanaka et al. (1999) or Roberts et al. (1991). Faude et al. (2008) compared the effects of low volume training with high-intensity versus high- volume training with low intensity, and observed no differential effects on mean stroke rates in either 100m or 400m maximal freestyle. High volume, low-intensity training is sometimes recommended for improving swimming economy, but none of the studies included in this review support that notion. However, the hypothesis needs more studies before any conclusion can be drawn.

Summary:
Strength training may have positive effects on stroke characteristics, but so far the evidence is inconclusive. Future RCT studies can probably be designed to study the effect of, or preservation of, stroke characteristics with strength training.


Order Dryland for Swimmers 
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Reference:

  1. Girold S, Maurin D, Dugué B, Chatard JC, Millet G. Effects of dry-land vs. resisted- and assisted-sprint exercises on swimming sprint performances. J Strength Cond Res. 2007 May;21(2):599-605
  2. Girold S, Jalab C, Bernard O, Carette P, Kemoun G, Dugué B. Dry-land strength training vs. electrical stimulation in sprint swimming performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Feb;26(2):497-505.
  3. Aspenes S, Kjendlie PL, Hoff J, et al. Combined strength and endurance training in competitive swimmers. J Sports Sci Med 2009 Sept; 8 (3): 357-65.
  4. Aspenes ST, Karlsen T. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming. Sports Med. 2012 Jun 1;42(6):527-43
  5. Toussaint HM, Vervoorn K. Effects of specific high resistance training in the water on competitive swimmers. Int J Sports Med 1990 Jun; 11 (3): 228-33
  6. Craig Jr AB, Skehan PL, Pawelczyk JA, et al. Velocity, stroke rate, and distance per stroke during elite swimming competition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1985 Dec; 17 (6): 625-34
  7. Wakayoshi K, Yoshida T, Ikuta Y, et al. Adaptations to six months of aerobic swim training: changes in velocity, stroke rate, stroke length and blood actate. Int J Sports Med 1993 Oct; 14 (7): 368-72
  8. Trappe S, Pearson D. Effects of weight assisted dry-land strength training on swimming performance. J Strength Cond Res 1994 Nov; 8 (4): 209-13.
  9. Tanaka H, Costill DL, Thomas R, et al. Dry-land resistance training for competitive swimming. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993 Aug; 25 (8): 952-9
  10. Strass D. Effects of maximal strength training on sprint performance of competitive swimmers. In: Ungerechts BE, Wilke K, Reischle K, editors. Vth International Symposium of Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming; 1986 Jul 27-31. Bielefeld: Human Kinetics Books, 1986: 149-56
  11. Faude O, Meyer T, Scharhag J, et al. Volume vs. intensity in the training of competitive swimmers. Int J Sports Med 2008 Nov; 29 (11): 906-12
By Dr. G. John Mullen received his Doctorate in Physical Therapy from the University of Southern California and a Bachelor of Science of Health from Purdue University where he swam collegiately. He is the owner of COR, Strength Coach Consultant, Creator of the Swimmer's Shoulder System, and chief editor of the Swimming Science Research Review.

Dryland for Swimmers

Dr. G. John Mullen, DPT of Swimming World Magazine, USA Swimming and COR
breaks down the research and applies it to dryland for swimmers!

 Stop Wasting Your Time with Poorly Designed Dryland Programs!

 Dryland for Swimmers breaks down dryland and gives you the tools to provide effective, evidence-based dryland programs!


Order your copy today for only $59.99!



Ever wonder what to do for dryland and where to start? If so, this product is for you! As a Physical Therapist and Swimming Strength Coach, I work with many swimmers looking for a safe, effective and progressive dryland program. 

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I've used these techniques with Masters swimmers to Olympic athletes, helping each one move easier and more effectively out and in the water. 

As you can imagine, I've seen it all, and after working with such a wide variety of people, I've come away with one big lesson:

No Two People Move the Same... Including You

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Don't just take my word for it, see what clients and fitness professionals have to say about my approach to coaching:

"John Mullen is a true professional and a clear expert in the field of sports medicine and injury prevention in swimming. His Troubleshooting Manual is clear, concise, and extremely well-presented. It directly addresses critical issues that coaches deal with on a daily basis with their athletes. This manual is the best on the market and will make every coach more adept at understanding swimming physiology, and thus helping our athletes with healthier and longer swimming careers.

Thanks for the great work and all that you do for the world of swimming!"

- Don Heidary, Head Coach, Orinda Aquatics

"I like the approach since there is so much more to developing athletes and if they aren’t tuned the right way and or don’t understand how to manage their environment, then the chances of success are essentially blind luck."
- Jonty Skinner, Alabama Swimming and Diving Coach

"Since using Dr. John's dryland system, our kids have recovered faster from workouts. Plus we've seen a great reduction in injuries, while enhancing their performance." 

- John Bitter, Santa Clara Swim Club Head Coach

"G. John Mullen's advice combines years of swimming experience with practical medical guidance."
- Paul Yetter, 7- time member of USA Swimming's National Team Coaching Staff

"John, a former swimmer, is a Doctor of Physical Therapy and a Certified Strength and Conditioning specialist; he works with swimmers on a daily basis, and he is one of the foremost experts." 

-Chris Plumb, Head Coach Carmel Swim Club
 
“I have been a fan of Dr. Mullen’s work for many years. We have built a friendship based on our shared passion for the sport of swimming, as well as the pursuit of excellence in a healthy, safe and efficient manner.”

“Dr. Mullen is an expert in human movement in an aquatic environment. This book provides practical and easy to use solutions to swimming specific physical challenges that occur as the result of normal training and competition.”
-William Dorenkott, Head Coach Ohio State Women's Swim team

Dryland for Swimmers Maximizes Your Training Results Without Wasting Your Time

What Does the Dryland for Swimmers Include? 

Dryland for Swimmers includes:

The Dryland for Swimmers E-book - $100 Value
The base on which everything is built. This guide walks you through everything you need to know to on dryland. 

The Dryland for Swimmers Video Database - $99.99 Value

This is a highly focused collection of videos covering dryland techniques, mobility spots, stretching techniques, and video lectures. You can watch and listen to me coach an athlete through every exercise in the program. Trust me; you'll be utilizing these videos for a long time; it's like your own private coaching seminar with me. I go through cues and other intricacies of form to ensure you do all the exercises perfectly.


TOTAL value of Dryland for Swimmers? $199.99.

Just to compare - if you were to fly here to Santa Clara and somehow snag a coveted spot in my personal coaching schedule, you would expect to pay a personally designed program for about $1000.

With all these resources, it's safe to say that I've given you every tool you will need to get stronger, perform better, and build a leaner, more athletic body; all while teaching your body to move more efficiently without any nasty aches and pains.


60 Day Money Back Guarantee

I am so confident that you will be thrilled with your purchase that I am offering a no-questions-asked 60 day money back guarantee. If you're not happy with your purchase, just let me know within 60 days and you'll get every penny back, no questions asked.

Though it's called a "handbook," this isn't some book that is going to sit on your bookshelf and collect dust. Rather, it's a thorough and expansive resource that will suit your goals over the next few years, letting you use it over and over again.

I'm not an "Internet Fitness Writer" I Walk the Walk!

If you've read up until this point, you know my name is Dr. John Mullen. What you really need to know about me is that coaching and training is my life. I'd like to take a second and tell you exactly who I am.

I obtained an undergraduate degree in Health Science, followed by my Doctorate Degree in Physical Therapy, from the top rated Physical Therapy program at the University of Southern California.

I've written over many published articles and have been featured on Swimming World Magazine, Swimmer Magazine, STACK, USA Swimming, and USA Triathlon.

Most importantly, I'm also a competitive swimmer. I was lucky enough to receive a swimming scholarship from Purdue University, compete at US Nationals, and am currently a Masters World Record Holder.

I lift, I train, and I write, and have been doing so for over a decade. Dryland for Swimmers is the summation of all that experience for improving soreness, pain, and restricted muscles - the sum of both my practical and my educational background.



NOTE: Dryland for Swimmers Guide is a downloadable product. No physical products will be shipped. After you order, you will get INSTANT ACCESS to download the e-book onto your computer. The e-book format is Adobe Acrobat PDF, which can be viewed on Mac or PC. If you have any questions regarding this product please contact me at info@centerofoptimalrestoration.com.

Dryland for Swimmers Guide Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Is this a one-time fee or do I pay every month?
One time. You buy Dryland for Swimmers, and you get lifetime access. You'll especially find yourself coming back to our video database over and over.
Q: Do I need any kind of special equipment?
Some simple tools from around the house and at most a ~$20 foam roll.
Q: Is this targeted at a special age group?
This product can help swimmers of any age!
Q: I have a question you haven't answered here.
While some websites make it hard to find an email address to contact, I put mine right out there: info@traingincor.com. If you have a question, email me, and I'll get it answered.



Price Today

 $59.99