Swimming Energy Calculator

OttrLoggr: Energy Use Calculator

Swim Energy Usage

Distance
Time
:
RER
Stroke

RER Value Guide

Slow (0.7)
A1 band - warm-up, recovery, cool-down sets
Moderate (0.85)
A2 band - aerobic capacity sets
Intense (1.00)
A3 band - aerobic power, VO2max sets

Data Source: Zamparo P, Bonifazi M (2013). Bioenergetics of cycling sports activities in water.

Coded for Swimming Science by Cameron Yick

Freestyle data

Velocity
/s
Cost
kj/
Total Cost
kj
Calories
kcal
Carbs
g
Fat
g

Quick Food Reference

Bagel
48g Carbs
Apple
25g Carbs
Peanut Butter
16g (2 tablespoons) *

Weekly Round-up

  1. Journal of the International Society of Swimming Coaches (Volume 3, Issue 1) [MUST READ!!] articles by Dr. Maglischo and Prof Lederman
  2. 2013 ISSN Conference Part II: Research Presentations by Sean Casey
  3. Recommended Reading: Looking at Lactate by Tad Sayce
  4. Figueiredo, P., Seifert, L., Vilas.Boas, J. P., & Fernandes, R. J. (2012). Spatio-temporal coordination in high intensity swimming. Presentation 1919 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall
  5. Connaboy, C., Coleman, S., & Sanders, R. H. (2012). Gender differences in heave and pitch phase relationships in maximal undulatory underwater swimming. Presentation 1917 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012by Dr. Rushall
  6. De Jesus, Karla, de Jesus, Kelly, Figueiredo, P. A., Goncalves, P., Pereira, S. M., Vilas-Bolas, J. P., & Fernandes, R. J. (2012). Analysis of upper limb dynamometry in two variants of backstroke start technique. Presentation 1914 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall
  7. Kjendlie, P.-L., & Olstad, B. H. (2012). Automatic 3D motion capture of swimming: marker resistance. Presentation 1939 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall
  8. Ofoghi, B., Stefano, D., Zeleznikow, J., & McMahon, C. (2012). Modeling relationships between swimming attributes for performance prediction. Presentation 1935 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall
  9. inna, M., Milia, R., Roberto, S., Marongiu, E., Olla, S., Loi, A., Ortu, M., Migliaccio, G. M., Tocco, F., Concu, A., & Crisafulli, A. (2013). Assessment of the specificity of cardiopulmonary response during tethered swimming using a new snorkel device. Journal of Physiological Science, 63, 7-16. by Dr. Rushall
  10. Sousa, M., Vilas-Boas, J. P., & Fernandes, R. (2012). Comparison between individual and averaged methodologies for anaerobic threshold assessment of age-group swimmers. Presentation 1281 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall
  11. Knab, A. M., Gillitt, N. D., Ciadella-Kam, L., Nieman, D. C., & Shanely, R. A. (2012). Polyphenol rich juice supplementation in Olympic swimmers does not alter inflammation or immune biomarkers. Presentation 1396 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall
  12. Kojima, K., Wilhite, D. P., Ishimatsu, M., Wright, B. V., & Stager, J. M. (2012). Expiratory flow limitation during maximal exercise in young competitive swimmers following one-year of swim training. Presentation 2246 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall
  13. Stager, J. M., & Cornett, A. (2012). Sex differences in childhood athletic performance. Presentation 1981 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall
  14. Rodriguez, F. A., Iglesias, X., Feriche, B., Calderon, C., Abalos, X., Vazquez, J., Barrero, A., Rodriguez, L., Hynynen, E., & Levine, B. D. (2012). Effects of altitude training on heart rate variability in orthostatic test in elite swimmers.Presentation 1562 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall
  15. Chan, D. K., Lonsdale, C., & Fung, H. H. (2011). Influences of coaches, parents, and peers on the motivational patterns of child and adolescent athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 21, 1-11. by Dr. Rushall
  16. West, D. J., Dietzig, B. M., Bracken, R. M., Cunningham, D. J., Crewther, B. T., Cook, C. J., & Kilduff, L. P. (2012). Influence of post-warm-up recovery time on swim performance in international swimmers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 15, 6 pages (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S144024401200120X). by Dr. Rushall
  17. Dragunas, A. J., Dickey, J. P., & Nolte, V. W. (2012). The effect of drag suit training on 50-m freestyle performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(4), 989-994. by Dr. Rushall
  18. Whitehead, J. R., Moran, M. P., Guggenheimer, J. D., & Brinkert, R. H. (2012). The effects of static stretching warm-up versus dynamic warm-up on sprint swim performance. Presentation 994 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall
  19. Godard, M. P., Godard, K. M., & Jessen, D. (2012). Ultrasound measured left ventricular strain in competitive youth swimmers: Acute and chronic effects of training. Presentation 1121 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall
  20. Zadeh, M. H., Roshan, V. D., Babaei, H., Shirinbayan, V., & Arendt-Nielsen, L. (2012). In vs. out of water recovery methods, performance and inflammation response: A comparative study. Presentation 1341 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall
  21. Fernandes, R. J., Ribeiro, J. Sousa, A., Sousa, M., Abraldes, A., Ferragut, C., Figueiredo, P., & Vilas-Boas, J. P. (2012). Kinematic comparison of different step lengths in a swimming incremental protocol. Presentation 1908 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall
  22. Matsunami, M., Taimura, A., & Mizobe, B. (2012). The role of high volume endurance training in competitive swimming. Presentation 1564 at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, California; May 29-June 2, 2012. by Dr. Rushall

Lactate is a Scapegoat for Fatigue

In swimming and sports, many coaches associate lactate and lactic acid with fatigue. Unfortunately, lactate is a scapegoat! During a fatiguing event, many physiological processes occur (and increase in lactate being one), yet little is mentioned about the other processes. 

Lactate may get a bad wrap, as it is currently the standard for measuring fatigue, but lactate is likely associated, not the cause of fatigue. For swimming, Dr. Ernest Maglischo has written an excellent piece about the pitfalls in the lactate theory. He even breaks down many of the possible causes of fatigue (find this article in VO2max is not Important for Competitive Swimmers).



One point Dr. Maglischo discusses is how lactate is actually a substrate used to create energy. This small piece of the puzzle is the topic of today. 

A recent study from the University of Hull in the United Kingdom looked at the effects of giving cyclist sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) or lactate prior to a 40-km cycling time trial. This study by Northgraves et. al. (2013) had 
"[s]even recreationally active males (age, 22.3 ± 3.3 years; height, 182.5 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 79.2 ± 6.3 kg) completed five 40 km cycling time trials, including a familiarization trial in a randomized blind double placebo design. Subjects ingested either 1.) 300 mg per kg body mass NaHCO3 (BICARB), 2.) 45 mg per kg sodium chloride (PL-BICARB) as the placebo for the NaHCO3 trial, 3.) 21.5 mg per kg body mass lactate supplement (LACTATE) and 4.) plain flour as the placebo for the lactate trial (PL-LACTATE) 60 minutes before exercise."

The results of this study showed no differences in performance between groups, only a higher heart rate in the lactate supplementation group. Though this is one study, it highly suggests an increase in lactate does not cause fatigue (no improve performance). Therefore, more variables are involved in the role of fatigue. This multivariable process requires much more research, but it seems lactate is not the main culprit of fatigue.

Reference

  1. Northgraves MJ, Peart DJ, Jordan C, Vince RV.Effect of lactate supplementation and sodium bicarbonate on 40 km cycling time trial performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2013 May 8. [Epub ahead of print]
By Dr. G. John Mullen received his Doctorate in Physical Therapy from the University of Southern California and a Bachelor of Science of Health from Purdue University. He is the founder of the Center of Optimal Restoration, head strength coach at Santa Clara Swim Club, creator of the Swimmer's Shoulder System, and chief editor of the Swimming Science Research Review.

VO2max is not Important for Competitive Swimmers

On my vacation, I had the luxury of reading and came to the conclusion, measuring VO2max is not important for competitive swimmers. I know this is a bold, hellish statement and one which is not perfectly supported. Moreover, it is never smart to say something is useless, well at least in the world of science. However, the more I learn about VO2max, the more I realize it is only applicable in high volume swimming practice, not a meet, practice. As we all know, no medals (at least important ones) are handed out in practice.


Two readings specifically to swimming have supported this thought that VO2max is not important to swimmers:



Dr. Rushall has been dismissing VO2max for sometime. Dr. Rushall has radical views in the minds of many traditional swim coaches, but let's think about it. The majority of swim races last for approximately :20 – 2:00. However, reaching VO2max takes approximately 10 minutes in most testing procedures. As a result, the metabolic demands of VO2 max testing aren't related to the metabolic demands of races. Also, the cyclic nature of swimming (alternating resting and moving body segments) and lack of gravity in the sport of swimming decrease it's demands, making VO2max occur even later. Instead, Dr. Rushall advocates the importance of race pace and motor programming, an important aspect of training.

To confirm, Dr. Maglischo, another pioneer in the sport, also questions the use of VO2max. His argues, VO2max is not the limiting factor of success as there is always oxygen in the circulating blood. However, Dr. Maglischo discusses the importance of mitochondrial density as the limiting factor in his great paper on Lactic acid and muscular fatigue. His point confirms the importance of oxygen, however, oxygen itself is not the limiting factor, instead the ATP-generating mitochondria that prevent further oxygen from reaching the muscles.

Overall, it is hard to completely dismiss the importance of oxygen for exercise, especially in anaerobic races. However, it does seem VO2max is not as vital as once thought, therefore it is time to question previous facts in the sport. Too long have myths in exercise science been passed along the swimming community, for these reasons it seems that improving VO2max should not be a goal of competitive swimmers!

By G. John Mullen founder of the Center of Optimal Restoration, head strength coach at Santa Clara Swim Club, creator of the Swimmer's Shoulder System, and chief editor of the Swimming Science Research Review.