Swimming Energy Calculator

OttrLoggr: Energy Use Calculator

Swim Energy Usage

Distance
Time
:
RER
Stroke

RER Value Guide

Slow (0.7)
A1 band - warm-up, recovery, cool-down sets
Moderate (0.85)
A2 band - aerobic capacity sets
Intense (1.00)
A3 band - aerobic power, VO2max sets

Data Source: Zamparo P, Bonifazi M (2013). Bioenergetics of cycling sports activities in water.

Coded for Swimming Science by Cameron Yick

Freestyle data

Velocity
/s
Cost
kj/
Total Cost
kj
Calories
kcal
Carbs
g
Fat
g

Quick Food Reference

Bagel
48g Carbs
Apple
25g Carbs
Peanut Butter
16g (2 tablespoons) *

Energy Expenditure of Hagino Kosuke, Sun Yang, and Park Tae-Hwan Over the Men's 200 Free Final

As a take home message:
  1. Racing strategy can depend from the energy expenditure per split
  2. It was estimate the energy expenditure per split and over the full race for the men’s 200m free medalists at the 17th Asian Games (gold: Hagino Kosuke, JAP ; silver: Sun Yang, CHI; bronze: Park Tae-Hwan, KOR)
  3. Hagino spent between 5.01 (100-150m) and 6.17 (0-50m) kcal per split. Sun’s expenditure per split ranged between 6.8 (100-150m) and 8.1 (0-50m) kcal
  4. Higher speed and body surface means a higher drag and therefore more energy needed to overcome the external force.

In Asia swimming is a very popular sport and swimmers are true national heroes. For instance, the Korean Park Tae-Hwan has an aquatic center named after him. The Singaporean Joseph Schooling is headlines in local mainstream media on regular basis. Sun Yang is a major star in China and pushed to be a role model to Chinese youth. So in this region everybody was looking forward for the 17th Asian Games (held in Incheon, Korea) and notably the swimming competition. Probably the best performances were delivered in the men’s 200 free final by the “freshman” Hagino Kosuke (Japan, 1:45.23, 2nd best time in 2014) and Sun Yang (China, 1:45.28, 4th best time in 2014). Surprisingly, the last spot in the podium was reserved to Park Tae-Hwan (Korea, 1:45.85). Later on the Korean shared that he was filling such a pressure to deliver good performances in his home country, in a venue named after him, that he was sorry to fail in such way and disappoint the fans.

Another major sport event held in Asia last month was the Singapore F1 Grand Prix (GP). The Marina Bay street circuit, in downtown Singapore is the most spectacular F1 GP. Well… that is the opinion at least of the 5.5 million people living here (including me); even though the arrangements for this street circuit are disruptive of our daily life for a week. For those who follow my posts is no surprise telling you that I like motor racing. A few times I did analogies between F1 or MotoGP with competitive swimming. Obviously, I attended the race held on my doorstep. During the race, I monitor cars’ fuel expenditure per lap.This gave me an idea: “I could estimate the swimming energy expenditure per split during an official event!” Literature reports a few procedures to measure the energy expenditure during testing and training sessions (Savage and Pyne, 2000; Barbosa et al, 2014), time trials or simulated races (Figueiredo et al., 2012). The challenge though is to have such insight during an official event. Swimmers cannot be instrumented with sensors or equipment as F1 cars. Even if they could, most wouldn’t fancy the idea because the drag force would increase, the technique changed and the performance impaired (Barbosa et al., 2010). Nevertheless, just like in F1 or MotoGP, racing strategy might depend also from the “fuel expenditure per lap”.

I came up with a mathematical model to estimate the energy expenditure per split of the men’s 200m free medalists at the 17th Asian Games. This kind of analytical approach is selected on regular basis in F1 and other motor racing sports. I won’t bother you with the math. However my model includes the swimmer’s anthropometrics, speed, drag, propelling and mechanical efficiencies. In an earlier post I addressed the topic “energy expenditure and nutrition”. That mathematical model is straightforward and does not include so many individual traits i.e., it is not so customized to each swimmer, which is fine if we want to monitor the balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Today my aim is different, hence we need a more comprehensive and accurate model.
The split times were retrieved from the official website (figure 1). It’s impressive how Hagino was able to shift to a higher gear and speed-up in the last split (the 150-200m split was 26.00s). In the remaining splits he was the slowest of the three swimmers, which can help to explain this. Anyway, after the last turn he was almost 1s second behind the leading swimmer and was able to win the race (turn at 150m: Hagino 1:19.23; Sun Yang 1:18.30).


Now let’s go to the main focus of this piece. Energy expenditure (also known as metabolic power) is reported in Watts (which is the International System of Unit for power, figure 2 – panel on the top) and in kilocalories per split (figure 2 – panel on the bottom). I was wondering if most of us would have a good understanding of how much power or energy is expended per split if reported in Watts or Joules. We all are familiar with the unit “kcal”. I guess this is a nice way to understand the amount of energy we are talking about.

The trend is almost the same for both graphs (figure 2). Sun Yang is the swimmer that expended more energy and Hagino the most economic, at least in this race the most economic was also the more effective (i.e. delivering the best performance). Sometimes this does not happen at all. I do not want to drift away from today’s topic, but for instance at the Rome 2009 WC, Paul Biedermann broke the WR (1:42.00) albeit Michael Phelps (1:43.22) was more efficient than the German. I will share this data some other time. Moving on… 

Hagino spent between 5.01 (100-150m) and 6.17 (0-50m) kcal per split. Sun’s expenditure per split ranged between 6.8 (100-150m) and 8.1 (0-50m) kcal. The highest energy expenditure happened in the fasted split, while the lowest in the slowest one. Besides that, the Japanese is only 1.75m tall, with approximately 68kg of weight and the Chinese 1.98m, 89kg. Over the full race Hagino, Sun, Park spent 21.89, 28.82 and 24.21 kcal, respectively. Higher speed and body surface means a higher drag and therefore more energy needed to overcome the external force. 

References



  1. Barbosa TM, Silva AJ, Reis AM, Costa M, Garrido N, Policarpo F, Reis VM (2010). Kinematical changes in swimming front Crawl and Breaststroke with the AquaTrainer® snorkel. Eur J Appl Physiol 109: 1155-1162
  2.  Barbosa TM, de Jesus K, Abraldes JA, Ribeiro J, Figueiredo P, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ (2014). Effects of Protocol Step Length on Biomechanical Measures in Swimming. Int J Sports Physiol Performance. On-line first.
  3.  Figueiredo P, Barbosa TM, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ (2012). Energy cost and body centre of mass’ 3D intracycle velocity variation in swimming. Eur J Appl Physiol. 112: 3319-3326
  4.  Savage B, Pyne D (2000). Swimmers. In: Tanner RK, Gore CJ (eds). Physiological tests for elite athletes. pp. 435-448. Australian Institute of Sports. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Illinois.
By Tiago M. Barbosa PhD degree recipient in Sport Sciences and faculty at the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Race Analysis and Video: Katie Ledecky 400 Free World Record

Take Home Points on Race Analysis and Video: Katie Ledecky 400 Free World Record
  • Katie Ledecky broke the 400, 800 and 1500m freestyle world records in roughly one and a half month, being the first American swimmer holding the big-three middle- and long-distance records after Janet Evans.
  • She swam the 1500m at a 1:02 pace, the 800m in negative split and the 400m with two splits bellow one minute.
  • There is a trend for the number of strokes per lap decrease with increasing distance (1500m: first half 38 and second half 39-40; 800m: 40-41; 400m: first half 39 and second half 40-41).
A good piece of news is when a man bites the dog. Katie Ledecky breaking another world
record is not a surprise or comes out of the blue. But to be the first woman after Janet Evans holding the 400, 800 and 1500m freestyle records, that is truly… remarkable. We are talking about three world records broken in roughly one and a half month, wearing textile swimsuits and still on the road to the season´s major competition. On top of that, she posted the 2nd best time in the world at the 200m event (as on 10 August 2014; table 1).



As you can imagine I did not have much time to carry a deep analysis. So, my purpose for today is to compare the split times and number of strokes per split in the four events. Split times were retrieved from the competitions´ websites. I will report both the 50m (figure 1) and 100m (main text) split times. The stroke count (number of strokes per 50m split) was done after downloading the videos from the web. Unfortunately for the 1500m event, I failed to find the full race. There is one video available that is a 7 minutes condensed version of the race from beginning to end. So, I had to interpolate some missing data (dash line in figure 2). If you wish the number of stroke cycles rather than the number of strokes, just divide the figures reported by two.

Regarding the split times (figure 1): (i) a very stable swim pace at the 1500m (around 1:02) and she end the race in 1:00.7; (ii) we can see clearly the negative split at the 800m event; (iii) in the 400m, two splits bellow one minute (57.74; 59.98) and remaining two inside the “double-0” (1:00.68; 1:00.46); (iv) in the shortest event, splits where 56.64 and 58.52, respectively. Probably several countries would like to have their top-sprinters doing these 200m splits.


The partial difference (table 2) of Ledecky´s split times in the 1500m in comparison with the: (i) 800m is between -0.44% and 3.89%; (ii) 400m, 3.05-4.20%; (iii) 200m, 5.60-6.80%. I.e. the first half of the 1500m and the 800m paces are fairly similar (on average a 0.40s difference per 100m split). In the last 100m of both races (i.e. 1400-1500m and 700-800m) she clocked 1:00.7 and 1:00.12 (difference: 0.58s).


Concerning to the stroke counts: (i) there is a trend for the number of strokes per lap decrease with increasing distance; (ii) number of strokes increases in the second half of the 1500m event from 38 to 39-40; (iii) in the 800m event the number of strokes was rather stable, between 40 and 41; (iv) in the 400m event, we can see again that the number of strokes increases in the second half from 39 to 40-41; (v) as expected the 200m is the race with the highest number of strokes per split (38-41); (vi) it might be interesting to pinpoint that Katie did 33, 34 and 35 strokes (first split) and 38, 38 and 29 strokes (second and third splits) in the 1500, 800 and 400m events, respectively.


My guess (my bet?) is that the figures I report here might be of no use by the end of the summer. After the Pan Pacs, to be held in late August, we may need to update this post. I hope you enjoyed the analysis though.


By Tiago M. Barbosa that earned a PhD degree in Sport Sciences and holds a faculty position at the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Sarah Sjöström LCM 50 Fly World Record: Race Analysis and Video

Take Home Points on Sarah Sjöström LCM 50 Fly World Record: Race Analysis and Video

  1. The start, clean swimming and finish took 26.56%, 8.47% and 64.97% of the race, respectively 
  2. So during non-breathing cycles for one side the drag is lower and the propulsion is higher, leading to higher speeds. 
  3. The duration of the underwater path is higher performing non-breathing cycles and this is more obvious during the most propulsive phases (insweep and upsweep) 
  4. Performing non-breathing cycles at butterfly, the frontal surface area and the drag is lower 
  5. Sarah Sjöström did not perform one single breath during the race 

The news of the week is that Sarah Sjöström (SWE) shaved 0.64s to Theresa Alshammar´s WR, clocking 24.43s in the LCM 50 Fly during the Swedish National Championships.

For this analysis I retrieved the video from Youtube. Procedures are almost the same reported earlier in another post. Please bear in mind that we have over here some shortcuts as the video is far from being the best. Albeit the challenge, hopefully the analysis will provide us some insight about this amazing race.
Some points to highlight from table 1:

1. The water entry is almost the same reported for Ruta Meilutyte´s WR last October. Sarah did the water entry at 2.86m and Ruta at 2.85m. A swimmer should try to enter the water as far away as possible. Air resistance is lower than water resistance enabling a higher speed (Vantorre et al., 2014). 

2. The start represents 26.56% of the full race (6.49s in 24.43s). The finish (i.e. last 5m) took 2.07s (8.47%). So the clean swimming represents the remaining 64.97%. For more details about the partial contribution of each race segment to the final time, I invite you to read another post.

3. Sarah breaks the surface 4.46s after the starting signal. I have no way to report an accurate distance. I would say that the water break happened around the 12th meter, because she did one and a half stroke cycles (almost two cycles) till the 15m mark. For a SL of roughly 2m, this means that after breaking the water surface, she traveled 3m to reach the 15m mark. There is evidence that drag is lower fully submerged than on surface. On surface, drag force is the sum of three components (friction, pressure and wave). If one swims fully submerged, there is no wave drag. Wave drag is 50–60% of the total passive drag on elite swimmers (Vennell et al., 2006).

4. Swim speed shows an “U” shape. I.e., a high speed in the first split, a slight decrease in the second (0.09m/s) and an increase in the last one (0.04m/s). These “U” and “zig-zag” profiles are reported on regular basis in the literature and any practitioner is aware of it. Having said that, she has an impressive average speed of 2.05m/s.

5. Swim speed depends from the relationship between SR and SL. There was a trend for a SR increase and a SL decrease over the race, probably due to peripheral fatigue. Anyway, we should acknowledge that the SL is quite high. To increase the speed, most elite swimmers increase the SR because the SL is fairly high and constant no matter the swim pace (Barbosa et al, 2008). Likewise, the SI is also very high but tends to decrease slightly (11.4%) throughout the race.

6. Sarah Sjöström did not perform one single breath during the race. If I remember, Theresa Alshammar did the same in 2009. There is evidence that performing non-breathing cycles at butterfly, the frontal surface area (i.e. the angle between the trunk and the horizontal plane) is lower (Barbosa, 2000). Therefore one might speculate that the intra-cyclic variation of the drag force will decrease.

7. If we breakdown the stroke cycle into hands´underwater path and arms´ recovery, we can learn that the first took on average 0.56s (60.43% of the full cycle). Research comparing different breathing techniques reported that the underwater path is higher performing non-breathing cycles than frontal or lateral breaths, at least in national level butterfliers (Barbosa, 2000). This increase is quite obvious during the most propulsive phases (insweep and upsweep). It was also reported that the recovery will take less time holding the breath (Hahn and Krung, 1992). 

8. So during non-breathing cycles the drag is lower and the propulsion is higher, leading to higher speeds. One way to understand such relationship between propulsion and drag is assessing the intra-cyclic variation of the mechanical impulse. When the mechanical impulse is positive, it means that the propulsion acting upon the swimmer is higher than the drag. If the mechanical impulse is negative, hence the propulsion is lower than the drag. In one paper it was reported that even though there was no significant differences, the intra-cyclic variation is lower performing non-breathing cycles (Barbosa et al., 2002). So, the swim stroke is smoother, with less variations and probably more efficient.

9. However, the most impressive thing is that Sarah shaved 0.64s to a 50m sprint (2.55% improvement) wearing a textile swimsuit. During the high-tech era (2008-2009), manufactures claimed that their swimsuits would improve the performances in 2 to 4%. If so, that means that Theresa wearing a textile swimsuit at the World Championships held in Rome would had set a time between 25.57 and 26.07s.

References


  1. Barbosa TM (2000). Análise tridimensional da cinemática da técnica de Mariposa ao realizarem-se ciclos de inspiração frontal, ciclos de inspiração lateral e ciclos não inspiratórios [3D kinematical analysis of the butterfly stroke performed with frontal breathing, lateral breathing and non-breathing cycles]. MSc thesis. Faculty of Sport Sciences of the University of Porto (Portugal).
  2. Barbosa TM, Santos Silva JV, Sousa F Vilas-Boas JP (2002). Measurement of butterfly average resultant impulse per phase. In: K Gianikellis (ed). Proceeding of the XXth International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. pp. 35-38. Universidad de Extremadura, Cáceres.
  3. Barbosa TM, Keskinen KL, Fernandes, RJ, Vilas-Boas JP (2008). The influence of stroke mechanics into energy cost of elite swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol. 103: 139-149
  4. Hahn A, Krung T (1992). Application of knowledge gained from the coordenation of partial movements in Breaststroke and Butterfly swimming for the development of technical training. In: D. Maclaren, T. Reilly and A. Lees (eds.). Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming VI, pp. 167-172. E & FN Spon, London.
  5. Vantorre J, Chollet D, Seifert L. (2014). Biomechanical Analysis of the Swim-Start: A Review. J Sport Sci Med 13: 223-231
  6. Vennell R, Pease D, Wilson B. Wave drag on human swimmers. J Biomech 2006: 39: 664–671.
By Tiago M. Barbosa that earned a PhD degree in Sport Sciences and holds a faculty position at the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Race Analysis: Cesar Cielo 21.39 50 LCM Freestyle

First and foremost, this analysis was based off a streaming video, since the race is not downloaded yet [as far as I know], so some hand times were used [which  has inherent errors]. 

For new comers to the website, we have done numerous race and world record analyses, which are purely meant for enjoyment and discussion. Below is the video of Cesar Cielo's 21.39. Check out our past 50 free WR Comparison.

Cesar Cielo 21.39 50 LCM Freestyle

Start

Compared to his world record swim, Cielo spends more time underwater, bringing him close to the 15-m mark. This dropped his stroke count from 4 (during his world record) to 2 strokes. This propelled him to a 15-m time of 4.89-seconds, nearly two tenths faster than his world record swim. This adjustment in his start gives one of the fastest times to the 15-m mark, comparable to Brad Tandy and George Bovell (other members of the >3.0 m/s club).

15 - 25 Meters

Cesar continued this speed as he reached the halfway mark, taking 8 strokes from 15 - 25 meters, the same as his world record swim. His velocity was nearly identical as his world record swim during this portion of the race (~2.7 m/s).

25 - 35 Meters

During the next leg, Cesar took one less stroke than his world record swim. However, this was likely continued from his longer start and finishing his either stroke during the last portion directly at the end of the 25-m mark. This part had similar time and velocity as his world record swim.

35 - 50 Meters

Into the wall, Cielo took one more stroke than his world record swim (equaling his stroke count in the world record race after removing the first 15 - m). However, this portion was nearly ~.50 seconds slower than his world record swim. 

Swimmer Advice

Maintain current start and underwater duration, as it provided significant time improvement. Work on maintaining stroke rate (seconds/stroke) at 0.18, instead of 0.16. Consider performing maximal efforts with tempo trainer with this set tempo. 

Written by G. John Mullen received his Doctorate in Physical at University of Southern California (USC) and is a certified strength and conditioning specialist (CSCS). At USC, he was a clinical research assistant performing research on adolescent  diabetes, lung adaptations to swimming, and swimming biomechanics. G. John has been featured in Swimming World Magazine, Swimmer Magazine, and the International Society of Swim Coaches Journal. He is currently the owner of COR, providing Physical Therapy, Personal Training, and Swim Lessons to swimmers and athletes of all skills and ages. He is also the creator of the Swimmer's Shoulder SystemSwimming ScienceSwimming Science Research Review, and the Swimming Troubleshooting System.

Race Analysis and Video: Emma Reaney 2:04.06 200 SCY Breaststroke NCAA Record

First and foremost, this analysis was based off a streaming video, since the race is not downloaded yet [as far as I know], so some hand times were used [which  has inherent errors]. 

For new comers to the website, we have done numerous race and world record analyses, which are purely meant for enjoyment and discussion. Below is the video of Reaney's swim and showdown with former NCAA record holder and Olympian Breeja Larson:
[Thanks to Rhys Brennan on YouTube]

Emma Reaney 2:04.06 200 SCY Breaststroke NCAA Record

Emma Reaney was not well known before breaking the NCAA in this event at her conference championship meet a few weekends ago. As you'll see stroke rate consistency and her pullouts helped her turn in the fastest time every in the 200 breaststroke SCY.

First 50

Emma had an excellent start, gracefully reaching 15-m and taking 4 strokes over the entire lap. These four strokes are an important feature, as she used ~4 strokes from the 15-m mark into the wall for the first 125 yards. Her velocity to 15-m was 1.63 on the second 25, which was consistently faster than her competition. She also had a faster stroke rate than Larson, potentially giving her more speed and her lead at the first 50.

Second 50

Emma extended her lead on the second 50, maintaining a stroke pull out (~1.55 m/s to 15-m) on the 3rd and 4th 25, while maintaining her stroke length and tempo. She held six strokes per lap, with excellent turn timing, as noted in the photo below.


Third 50

Emma extended her lead on the third 50, maintaining 15-m under 10 seconds with her velocity around~1.55 m/s to 15-m [note her 15-m distance compared to Katie Olsen below her]. She continued to maintain her stroke count, as her competitors increased their tempo.

Fourth 50

Over the last 50, Emma began showing signs of fatigue, most notably by a shorter and slower breakout. However, she keep her strong long, keeping her stroke count at 6 strokes per lap. This consistent stroke count gave her excellent timing on her turns.


Swimmer Advice

The swimmer demonstrates excellent swimming stroke count consistency. Emma may benefit from maintaining her pull out distance and velocity on the last two laps. This may be improved with proper "hypoxic" training [more correctly hypercapnic training] training (Friday Interview: Dr. Chia-Hua Kuo and Dr. Futoshi Ogita).

Written by G. John Mullen received his Doctorate in Physical at University of Southern California (USC) and is a certified strength and conditioning specialist (CSCS). At USC, he was a clinical research assistant performing research on adolescent  diabetes, lung adaptations to swimming, and swimming biomechanics. G. John has been featured in Swimming World Magazine, Swimmer Magazine, and the International Society of Swim Coaches Journal. He is currently the owner of COR, providing Physical Therapy, Personal Training, and Swim Lessons to swimmers and athletes of all skills and ages. He is also the creator of the Swimmer's Shoulder SystemSwimming ScienceSwimming Science Research Review, and the Swimming Troubleshooting System.

Race Analysis: Michael Andrew 19.85 50-Yard Free

First and foremost, this analysis was based off a streaming video, since the race is not downloaded yet [as far as I know], so some hand times were used [which  has inherent errors]. 

For new comers to the website, we have done numerous race and world record analyses, which are purely meant for enjoyment and discussion. This analysis breaks down Michael Andrew's 19.85 50 yard freestyle race. Check out our previous Race Analysis and Video of Caleb Dressel 18.94Stat Sunday: WR analysis Men's 50 free.

Michael Andrew 50 Yard Free - 19.85 seconds

Michael Andrew swam a remarkable race for his age over the past weekend in the 50 free. Could anyone have imagined a 14-year-old swimming a 50 yard free under 20 seconds a decade ago? I sure couldn't and if you want more of my thoughts see more on young swimmer 50-yard-free progression.

First 25

Unlike Brad Tandy and Caleb Dressel, Andrew does not perform as long as an underwater phase as he surfaced in ~3.38 seconds. This put him ~0.5 seconds behind Caleb Dressel at the 15-m mark and 0.8 seconds behind Tandy. Once swimming, Andrew had a the same distance per stroke into the wall as Tandy and Dressel and only slightly shorter distance per stroke than Cielo.

Second 25

A similar race occurred on Andrew's 2nd 25 compared to the other great swimmers. He broke the surface 0.3 - 0.4 seconds earlier than Dressel and Tandy resulting in him taking two more strokes over the first 15-m. On the last 8.6-yard, Andrew posted the same distance per stroke as Cielo and Tandy (even better than Dressel). [race video if embedded video doesn't work].

Conclusions on Michael Andrew 50-yard Free

Michael Andrew demonstrated excellent distance per stroke and swimming speed, comparable to elite swimmers over the course of the 50-yard free. However, improvements are required on his start and turn, so he can reach a starting velocity ~3.0 m/s. 
B. Tandy Breakout

Michael Andrew Breakout

Swimmer Advice: Consider working on more starts and turns, using more underwater kicking

G. John Mullen received his Doctorate in Physical at University of Southern California (USC) and is a certified strength and conditioning specialist (CSCS). At USC, he was a clinical research assistant performing research on adolescent  diabetes, lung adaptations to swimming, and swimming biomechanics. G. John has been featured in Swimming World Magazine, Swimmer Magazine, and the International Society of Swim Coaches Journal. He is currently the owner of COR, providing Physical Therapy, Personal Training, and Swim Lessons to swimmers and athletes of all skills and ages. He is also the creator of the Swimmer's Shoulder SystemSwimming ScienceSwimming Science Research Review, and the Swimming Troubleshooting System.

Race Analysis and Video: Brad Tandy 18.80 50 SCY Free

First and foremost, this analysis was based off a streaming video, since the race is not downloaded yet [as far as I know], so some hand times were used [which  has inherent errors]. 

For new comers to the website, we have done numerous race and world record analyses, which are purely meant for enjoyment and discussion. This analysis breaks down Brad Tandy's 18.80 50 yard freestyle race at Pac-12 championships. Check out our previous Race Analysis and Video of Caleb Dressel 18.94; Stat Sunday: WR analysis Men's 50 free.

Brad Tandy 50 Yard Free - 18.80 seconds

Brad Tandy had a great swim in the 50 yard free at Pac-12 Championships on March 6th 2014. Most notably was his start and underwater dolphin kicking. These components provided him a faster 15-m time than Cesar Cielo's record of 18.47. 

First 25

Once again, Tandy's start was his largest asset, helping him to a velocity of 3.09 m/s and a 0-15 m time of ~4.84 seconds. He took only one stroke to the 15-m mark and eight strokes for the first lap, two whole strokes less than Cielo's race.


Second 25

On the second 25, Tandy used his velocity from the first 25 for a similar 25 breakout time as Cielo. However, his time to the 15-m mark was ~0.3 seconds slower than Cielo, despite having the same stroke count as fourteen (seven to the 15-m mark and seven into the wall). This slower second 25 was likely aided by a much slower stroke rate (1.99 vs. 2.04).

Conclusions on Brad Tandy 50 Yard Free

Brad Tandy demonstrated an excellent start and underwater kicking. For further improvement, he should work on maintaining a higher stroke rate during the second 25 of the race. 

Swimmer Advice: Considering swimming with a tempo trainer at a faster rate (~0.48) during hypoxic [more correctly hypercapnic training] training (Friday Interview: Dr. Chia-Hua Kuo and Dr. Futoshi Ogita). 

G. John Mullen received his Doctorate in Physical at University of Southern California (USC) and is a certified strength and conditioning specialist (CSCS). At USC, he was a clinical research assistant performing research on adolescent diabetes, lung adaptations to swimming, and swimming biomechanics. G. John has been featured in Swimming World Magazine, Swimmer Magazine, and the International Society of Swim Coaches Journal. He is currently the owner of COR, providing Physical Therapy, Personal Training, and Swim Lessons to swimmers and athletes of all skills and ages. He is also the creator of the Swimmer's Shoulder SystemSwimming ScienceSwimming Science Research Review, and the Swimming Troubleshooting System.