What is Dynamic Mobility?
Research Review on Dynamic Stretching
Dynamic Stretching and Acute Power
Power is the amount of energy consumed per unit time. Skilled swimmers generate high
amounts of power during the start, turn and catch phase of most strokes. Research suggests dynamic stretching before an activity increases acute power. The mechanism behind this improvement is not well unknown, but may simply be by warming-up the body. Luckily, dynamic stretching appears to improve the power of the knee extensors (Manoel 2008). In fact, it seems power is greater following dynamic stretching compared to other forms of stretching.
Dynamic Stretching on Acute Performance
Remember, performance parameters are key. Unfortunately, many studies only analyze
power or force, yet these do not always translate to performance. When reading the research, keep this in mind!
Practical Implication for Swimmers
Perform a 10 - 15-minute dynamic warm-up ~3 - 5 minutes before warming up. This practice can warm-up the body and increase power and performance gains.
Theoretical Reasons for Dynamic Stretching
- Less in Water Warm-up Required: A dynamic warm-up increases the body temperature. This warm-up decreases the time needed for a slow, poorly performed in-water warm-ups.
- Improved Motor Control [body coordination]: Many swimming warm-ups use the same motions as swimming [ie freestyle is used as the main warm-up and during the main set]. This lack of variety does not enhance general motor control. In fact, slow and sloppy in-water warm-up may impair stroke biomechanics and motor control. Unlike swimming warm-ups, out of water dynamic warm-up can enhance an athlete's motor control.
- General Strength Gains: Many people have sedentary lives. This lack of movement variety creates muscular imbalances which may increase injury risk. Mastering varying movements with a dynamic warm-up can enhance general strength, which may help a swimmer control their body, but more importantly, help create a balanced muscular system and prevent injuries.
4 Things for the Perfect Dynamic Warm-up
- Include the Entire Body: Using the entire body entourages improved motor control and full body connection. Also, using the whole body increases the body temperature faster than isolated warm-ups. Now, every movement doesn't require a full body motion, but starting from one joint and progressing to multiple joints can teach functional integration and warm-up the body.
- Use all the Planes of Motion: In our basics section, we break down the various planes of motion. Using each plane of motion of the main joints (humerus, femur, etc.) uses various muscle groups to activate and increase the body temperature.
- Mix-up the Exercises: Once again, this is a great opportunity for motor control enhancement, as well as general strength gains. In the States, many children do not perform physical education class, resulting in excessive sitting and screen time. A dynamic exercise with frequently changing exercises can enhance motor control, with the goal of helping children control their body and increase the capacity for movement adjustment and biomechanical improvement in the pool.
- Warm them up!: The entire routine doesn't require a high-intensity movement [nor should it fatigue the swimmer], but it must increase the body temperature. This allows the swimmer to hit the water ready to perform beneficial work, not just sloppy swimming.
Example Dynamic Warm-up
Self Myofascial Releases (SMR):
- SMR Infraspinatus
- Rotary SMR Thoracic spine
- 20 Glenohumeral Joint Internal Rotation
- 50 High Knees
- 20 Bulgarian Dead Lift
- :60 Side-Steps with Robots
- 20 Push-up Back Touches
- 20 Lunge with Rotation
- Pagaduan JC, Pojskić H, Užičanin E, Babajić F. Effect of various warm-up protocols on jump performance in college football players. J Hum Kinet. 2012 Dec;35:127-32. doi: 10.2478/v10078-012-0086-5. Epub 2012 Dec 30.
- McMillian DJ, Moore JG, Hatler BS, Taylor DC. Dynamic vs. static stretching warm up: the effect on power and agility performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2006; 20:492-499.
- Costa PB, Herda TJ, Herda AA, Cramer JT.Effects of Dynamic Stretching on Strength, Muscle Imbalance, and Muscle Activation.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Sep 24. [Epub ahead of print].
- Manoel ME, Harris-Love MO, Danoff JV, Miller TA. Acute effects of static, dynamic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on muscle power in women. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Sep;22(5):1528-34. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31817b0433.
- Werstein KM, Lund RJ.J The effects of two stretching protocols on the reactive strength index in female soccer rugby players Strength Cond Res. 2012 Jun;26(6):1564-7.
- Perrier ET, Pavol MJ, Hoffman MA. The Acute Effects of a Warm-up including static or dynamic stretching on countermovement jump height, reaction time, and flexibility. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Jul; 25(7):1925-31.
- Turki O, Chaouachi A, Drinkwater EJ, Chtara M, Chamari K, Amri M, Behm DG. Ten minutes of dynamic stretching is sufficient to potentiate vertical jump performance characteristics.J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Sep;25(9):2453-63. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822a5a79.