When describing joint movement, a reference position is needed. This position is termed the anatomic reference position. This position entails: an erect standing position with the feet slightly separated, the arms hanging by the side, the elbows straight, and with the palms of the hands facing forward.
Planes of Movement
Joints and Movement
Force equals mass times acceleration and is a vector quantity, meaning that it’s displayed in a particular direction. Force is usually measured in Newtons.
GRF stands for ground reaction force. When you jump, sprint, or perform an Olympic lift, you exert force into the ground. Force-plates measure these forces. During vertical jumping, most of the force produced is vertical. However, in sprinting, you have vertical forces as well as horizontal forces. When the foot strikes the ground during maximum speed sprinting, at first the force is projected forward which is called braking forces, and once the COM passes over the foot, the force is projected rearward which is called propulsive forces. In general, force, including GRF, is measured in Newtons.
When muscles contract or are stretched, they create muscle force. This muscle force pulls on bones which creates joint torque. In general, force, including muscle force, is measured in Newtons.
Velocity is the rate of change of position of the athlete. It’s just like the term speed, but with a direction associated with it. It is usually measured in meters per
second, but can also be expressed in miles per hour or kilometers per hour.
Vectors contain both magnitudes and directions. Force, velocity, and acceleration are all vector quantities.
You can plot the force-velocity curve on a graph by plotng force on the y-axis and velocity on the x-axis. In strength & conditioning, the goal is to shift the curve upward and to the right so that the athlete can exhibit more force and power at every possible load. Heavy strength training tends to shift the curve more on the force end of the spectrum, whereas explosive training tends to shift the curve more on the velocity end of the spectrum.
Joint Angular Velocity
Joints in the human body move through arcs and therefore accelerate through a range of angular motion. Joint angular velocity is the rate of change of joint movement, often measured in degrees per second or radians per second.
Acceleration examines the rate of change of velocity with respect to time, and is typically reported in meters per second per second (meters per second
Power is the rate of doing work. It is calculated either by dividing work by time, or by multiplying force by velocity. Power is usually reported in watts.
It is possible to measure the power output of individual joints during movement by multiplying the torque by the joint angular velocity. It is usually reported in Newton-meters per second.
RFD stands for rate of force development and can be measured in multiple ways. RFD is believed to be highly important in sports that require rapid force generation. It is usually measured in Newtons per second.
RTD stands for rate of torque development and is usually measured in Newton-meters per second.
RER stands for rate of EMG rise and represents the rate of increase in muscle activation. RER is typically measured in % of MVC per millisecond or millivolts per second.
Impulse is the force multiplied by time and is sometimes calculated by taking the area under the force time curve. It is typically reported in Newton-meters per
Work is equal to force times distance and is generally reported in joules.
Momentum is mass times velocity and is reported in kilogram-meters per second.
A moment is a turning effect produced by a force. It is often synonymous with torque, which can be thought of as the rotational analog to linear force (turning force), and is calculated by multiplying the perpendicular force by the distance from the pivot (or axis of rotation). Resistance in strength training produces an external moment, whereas muscles produce an internal moment to counteract the external moment. Moments are usually measured in Newton-meters.
You can plot the torque-angle curve on a graph by plotting the torque on the y-axis and the joint angle on the x-axis.
Stiffness is the rigidity of an object and can be thought of as the extent to which it resists deformation in response to an applied force. The stiffer the object, the harder it is to deform. Stiffness is usually measured in Newtons per meter or pounds per inch.
The opposite of stiffness is compliance. The more compliant the object, the easier it is to deform.
A peak is the greatest magnitude of a set of data, or the highest point measured.
A mean is simply on average of a set of data and is calculated by combining a set of data and dividing by the number of figures.
In biomechanics, the term relative commonly means relative to one’s bodyweight and is calculated by dividing a figure by one’s bodyweight.
In biomechanics, the term absolute commonly means the total amount regardless of body weight.
EMG stands for electromyography and is a technique for recording and analyzing the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.
The onset time in EMG is the time that elapses between an occurrence and detectable muscle activation.
Isokinetic exercise is performed on a dynamometer which provides variable resistance to movement so that regardless of the effort exerted, the
movement takes place at a constant speed.
Isoinertial exercise maintains constant mass and is characteristic of typical free weight exercises that are commonly employed in strength training.
PAP stands for post-activation potentiation which is a phenomenon whereby performance is enhanced following previous muscle activation.
ROM stands for the range of motion and is typically measured in degrees or radians.
Displacement is a change in position of a body. It can be translational, rotational, or a combination of both.
CMJ stands for countermovement jump and is a common test used in research to measure jumping ability. It begins in the standing position with hands on the hip and involves a rapid countermovement until the knees reach 90-degree angle, whereby the movement is explosively reversed.
The squat jump (SJ) is a common test used in research to measure jumping ability and is performed starting in the bottom position at a 90-degree knee angle with the hands on the hip, no arm swing, and no countermovement.
Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), or sometimes referred to as MVIC for maximum voluntary isometric contraction, is the measurement of the greatest possible output that the individual can create by their own volition. MVC could be used in electromyography (EMG) or with torque measurements using isokinetic dynamometers.
Concentric muscle actions occur when muscles shorten under tension.
Eccentric muscle actions occur when muscles lengthen under tension (technically it’s not a contraction).
Isometric muscle actions occur when no movement in the joint take place. The muscles will indeed shorten while the tendons will lengthen, but the term is
Plyometric exercises take advantage of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) whereby a muscle rapidly lengthens and then explosively reverses its action.
GCT stands for ground contact time. In general, maximum speed sprinting exhibits GCTs of approximately one-tenth of a second whereas for maximum jumping it’s approximately five-tenths of a second. Running and depth
jumping can average 0.2 seconds.
In biomechanics, often forces in opposite directions are combined to create a single net force. For example, net horizontal force is the sum of braking (negative) and propulsive (positive) forces.
COM stands for center of mass and is the unique point where the weighted relative position
of the distributed mass sums to zero. Another way of thinking of it
is as a point in space determined by a distribution of mass, whereby a uniform force acting on that mass would act as if the distribution were located at just that point. Sometimes the term center of gravity (COG) is used in place of COM.
In biomechanics, active muscle forces are generated by muscle contractions, namely the sarcomeres.
In biomechanics, passive muscle forces are generated by the elastic properties of materials such as those found in muscles (collagen, titin, etc.), ligaments, bones, tendons, and fascia.
In biomechanics, often resultant vectors are calculated, in which case a single vector is formed by combining (or summing) two or more other vectors. For
example, combining horizontal and vertical forces into a resultant force.