Do Schoolbags Cause Low Back Pain?

Do Schoolbags Cause Low Back Pain?

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There is variation regarding recommendations for children and adolescents carrying schoolbags. Guidelines for safe loads are mostly within 10%–15% of body weight (BW) range but include values as low as 5% and as high as 20%. Some biomechanical studies suggest that the schoolbag weight of 10% of BW may be enough to cause changes in kinematics, body posture and muscular strain. Methods of …

Shoulder Kinematics During Scapular Plane Abduction

Shoulder Kinematics During Scapular Plane Abduction

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Shoulder impingement is the most common injury in swimming. Many factors contribute to shoulder impingement and one is inadequate space for clearance of the rotator cuff tendons during arm elevation. Previous studies have analyzed healthy shoulder range of motion with single-plane radiographs, but did not provide 3-D motion of the shoulder. Three-dimensional analyzes are necessary to understand the activity in …

Posterior Capsule Tightness

Posterior Capsule Tightness

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Posterior shoulder tightness is common in patients with shoulder injuries. The shoulders are the most commonly injured site in swimmers, suggesting swimmers have tight posterior shoulders. It is believed the posterior capsule is responsible for the tightness in the posterior shoulder, leading to the glenohumeral internal rotational deficit (GIRD) and type 2 superior labrum anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesions, the …

Neuromuscular Response to Pain and Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

Neuromuscular Response to Pain and Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

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Muscle soreness and pain are common sensations following a bout of unfamiliar exercise. This is believed secondary to lengthening and damage of the muscle fibers resulting in inflammation. Moreover, this damage results in changes in neuromuscular function and force production. Surprisingly, this decrease in force is not seen until 12 hours following exercise, perhaps due to pain not occurring until …

Multi-planar Strengthening Appears Important in Rehabilitation

Multi-planar Strengthening Appears Important in Rehabilitation

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A weak core is considered paramount for athletes, as it is the “engine” of the body. It is also believed a weak core increases the risk of injury. The core is defined as the muscles which surround the lumbopelvic region and includes the abdominals anteriorly, the paraspinals and gluteals posteriorly, the pelvic floor musculature inferiorly, the hip abductors and rotators …

Core Strength is Important for Rehabilitation

Core Strength is Important for Rehabilitation

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Low back pain is very common in the general population, estimated at 85% of people. Adolescent athletes are thought to have more low back pain than age-matched peers. Spondylolysis, a lesion in the pars interarticularis of the neural arch, is more commonly injured in athletes (specifically gymnasts, throwing athletes, rowers, etc.). Athletes have also been shown to have a greater …

Manipulation Responders Have Higher Disc Diffusion

Manipulation Responders Have Higher Disc Diffusion

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The use of spinal manipulation is quite common in chiropractic, physical therapy, and osteopathic treatments. Yet, the physiological adaptation following a spinal manipulation is not well understood. This study looked at the response to a single spinal manipulation. What was done Nineteen adults between 19 – 45 years (M=6, F=13) of age participated in this study. All had the low …

Low Back Stabilization Prediction Rule

Low Back Stabilization Prediction Rule

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Clinical prediction rules (CPR) are meant to identify patients who would benefit from certain rehabilitation protocols. This study looked at the current CPR for identifying patients most likely to improve with lumbar stabilization exercise (LSE). The current CPR suggests four variables possess the greatest predictive power for treatment success: 1) Age <40 2) Straight leg raise (SLR) > 91 degrees …

Are Functional Movement Screens (FMS) Beneficial for Swimmers?

Are Functional Movement Screens (FMS) Beneficial for Swimmers?

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Injuries are extremely common in those repeatedly performing awkward movements and positions. Movement screening has become quite popular for an injury prevention tool, yet the improvement or applicability of these screens, like the functional movement screen (FMS) used in this study on injury prevention. What was done The FMS was performed on 433 firefighters (M=408, F=25; ~41.8 years). The FMS …