Background on Baking Soda
Sodium bicarbonate or baking soda is a commonly used ergogenic aide with mixed literature ineffectiveness.
The mechanism behind sodium bicarbonate is to buffer the acid hydrogen ions from high-intensity exercise and lactate accumulation.
Most literature has investigated the effectiveness of acute loading, just prior to a high-intensity performance. However, chronic loading for 3-6 days prior to an event might improve exercise performance.
This study was designed to investigate the effect of acute and chronic loading of sodium bicarbonate on swimming performance in highly trained swimmers using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design.
What was done
Eight highly trained National level Australian male swimmers performed under three conditions. After each condition, the swimmer performed two, 200-meter swim trials with 1.5 hours after the final dose of sodium bicarbonate and 24 hours after trial 1. The three trials were acute loading (placebo for 3 days prior to the event, 0.3 g kg/BM of sodium bicarbonate in with 400 – 500 mL of water in three equal doses over 15 min with the final dose 90 min before the first 200 on the day of the first 200), chronic loading (three 0.1 g kg/BM for three days prior to the event and 0.1 kg/BM of sodium bicarbonate in three equal doses over 15 min, with the final dose taken 90 min before the first 200), and placebo (no sodium bicarbonate, but methylcellulose three times per day for 3 days).
Blood sampling and analysis were taken from the earlobe and gastrointestinal disturbance was assessed.
No difference in performance was noted between all three samples for the first or second 200. In regards to best time, one swimmer had a best 200-meter time after acute loading, four after chronic loading and three after the placebo.
There was no difference in blood pH or gastrointestinal upset after ingestion.
There was no difference in acute, chronic, or placebo ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in highly trained swimmers. This suggests that sodium bicarbonate is not a beneficial ergogenic aid in single bout swimming. Research in repeated sprints with short rest should be assessed for improvement, but the lack of difference in blood pH suggests no improvement will occur in repeated sprints.
- Joyce S, Minahan C, Anderson M, Osborne M. Acute and chronic loading of sodium bicarbonate in highly trained swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 Feb;112(2):461-9.
Originally Posted June 2012